Geography Optional - IAS 2016 2nd Batch

Geography - Paper I:

1. Geography - 1: Introduction and Geo Morphic Process and Earth Quakes
2. Geography - 2: Volcanoes
3. Geography - 3: Isostasy, Geosynclines, Orogeny (Kober's Theory), Origin of Continents and Oceans.
4. Geography - 4: Evidences of CDT, Plate tectonic Theory, Cycles of Erosion, Davisian Concept
5. Geography - 5: Pencks Cycle of Erosion, L C Kings Cycle of Erosion, Channel Morphology
6. Geography - 6: Geomagnetism and Paleo-Magnetism, Models of Land form Evolution, Applied Geo-morphology, The comparison between Davis and Pencks cycles of Erosion
7. Geography - 7: Climatology, Why to study climate?. Origin, Composition and structure of Atmosphere. Insolation, Factors affecting distribution of insolation, Heat Budget, Operation of Terrestrial Heat Balance, Temperature of Atmosphere (Process of heat transfer and process of heating and cooling of atmosphere), Controls of Temperature, Air Pressure, Tri-Cellular Meridional Circulations by Palmen. 
8. Geography - 8: Jet Streams, Winds, Factors effecting Wind Motion, Humidity, Hydro-logical Cycle, Condensations,  Air Masses (started)
9. Geography - 9: Modification and Classification of Air Masses, Fronts-Classification of Fronts, Atmospheric Disturbances (Cyclones)
10. Geography - 10: Polar Front Theory, Tropical Disturbances, Tropical Cyclones, Classification of The Climates, (Koppen's classification started)
11. Geography - 11: Advantages and Disadvantages of Koppen's classification, Climate Change...Theories of Climate Change, Major International developments, Perspectives of developed and developing Countries, Impact of climate change ...Mitigation Measures
12. Geography - 12: Rain Making Process, Oceanography, Ocean bottom Topography, Bottom Topography of Atlantic Ocean, Temperature of the Oceans, 
13. Geography - 13: The horizontal and Vertical distribution of Temperature, salinity - variation and distribution and its significance, Ocean deposits, classification and distribution, ocean currents, causes of origin
14. Geography - 14: Currents of Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Tides, Origin of tide theories, Coral Reefs, Types of Coral Reefs.
15. Geography - 15: Structure of coral reefs, Theories of their origin, Indian Ocean Basin, Ocean heat Budget, 
16. Geography - 16: Bio Geography, Soils, Properties, factors influencing soil formations, processes, Soil Classifications, Marbutts and CSCS Classification.
The Biomes, The Forest Biomes, 
17. Geography  - 17:Savanna Biome, Grass land Biome, Desert Biome and Tundra Biome. 
Aquatic ecosystems - Marine and Fresh Water, Interactions in ecosystems
18. Geography - 18: Components of ecosystem, Food Chain, Environmental pollution, Classification of Pollutants, Types of Pollutants (Air and Water)
19. Geography - 19: Soil Pollution, Noise Pollution, Pollution in India, The Environmental Protection Act, Solid Waste, Its classification, Its impact, Management of Solid waste like reducing , reusing and recycling. (treatment and disposal started)
20. geography - 20: Thermal Treatment, Dumps and land fields, Biological treatments and Integrated solid waste management. 
Indian Biodiversity, red data book, efforts by international and national agencies for conserving the biodiversity. 

Paper I (Section B)
1. Geography -39: Process of Urbanization, Internal Structure of the cities - The concentric Zone Theory, Sector Theory, Multiple Nuclei Theory. The Rostows model.  
2. Geography - 40: Settlement systems, Hierarchy of settlements (3 Universal Land Use Models...CPT, Rank Size Rule, Primate City)
3. Geography - 41Vanthunens Land Use model, Whittleseys Agricultural Regions, Alfred Webers Industrial Location Theory.
4. Geography - 42: Alfred Weber's Industrial Location Theory, Population Theories (Malthusian Theory of Population Growth, Marxian Theory of Population Growth, Demographic Transition Theory), Migration Models, Lee's model of migration, Zelinskys Mobility Transitional Model. 
5. Geography - 43The geo political theories, Heart land theory, Rim Land Theory, The geo-politcs of Indian Ocean, Strategy string of pearls, The laws of International boundaries and frontiers. Map techniques.
6. Geography - 44Classification of the cities (given Arrouseau/Harris/Nelson), / Mumford classification of cities, Morphology of Indian cities (Ancient and Medieval), Ashok Mitra’s classification of Indian cities (Modified classification of M K Jain), Sphere of Influence.
Human Geography – The cultural regions of the World (Realms)
7. Geography - 45: Structure of Sphere of Influence, De-limitations. Rural Urban Fringe, Structure and Delimitation of Fringe, stages of growth. Rural Urban Continuum, Growth pole and growth center (Gunner Mirdal, R P Mishra). Systems Analysis, Dichotomies in human geography, Determinism Vs possibilism, regional geography Vs General Geography, Modern approaches (positivism and quantitative revolution) 

Paper II: (Section - A)

1.  Geography - 21: Physiography of India - The Himalayan Mountains, The Great Plains (Started)
2. Geography - 22: Origin and Geo-Morphology of plains, Significance of Plains, Peninsular Plateau, Sub Plateaus and Hill Ranges, The Coastal Plains (Started)
3. Geography - 23: East Coastal - West Coastal Plains and Their Significance, The Indian Islands (Islands for Map Pointing), Drainage, Types of Rivers and Patterns, Himalayan River systems and their Evolution, Indus and Ganges River systems
4. Geography - 24: The Brahmaputra River System, The Peninsular Drainage System, The Differences between Himalayan and Peninsular Rivers.
Climate- IMD DIvision, The Monsoons, 
5. Geography - 25: El-Nino Southern oscillations, Progressive of Monsoons, Break in the Monsoons, Rainfall distribution, Peculiarities of Indian Climate, Climatic Regions...Trewartha, R L Singh, Koppen
Soils: Major soil Groups in India, Soil Erosion, Extent of Soil erosion s in India, Effects of soil erosion. 
6. Geography - 26: Soil Conservation, Achievements, Forests, Classification of forests, Major legal based on exploitability, Social Forestry, Forest cover in India, Grass Lands, Major and Minor Forest Products, Indirect Use of Forests, Organisations and institutions of forests, Land utilization in India. 
7. Geography - 27Indian Agriculture, Why Indian economy is an agrarian economy, Salient features of agriculture, types of farming, agricultural regions given by Randhwa and ICAR, Uses of agricultural regionalisation, green revolution – 1, 2 aspects of ever green revolution, Ecological implications, Suggestions for sustainable green revolution
White revolution. Agriculture infrastructure(Irrigation, seeds, fertilisers, power)
Irrigation started. 
8. Geography - 28Canal, Tank, Well, Intensity of irrigation and problems associated with irrigation, seeds, Fertilizers, Power, Institutional factors, Land holdings, Land Tenure and tenancy, land reforms, agricultural productivity. Cropping Pattern
9: Geography - 29: Copping intensity, crop combinations, land capabilities, Agro climatic regions of India, Dry farming and its significance. 
Energy Resources - Coal and Petroleum 
10. Geography -30Natural Gas, Electricty generated in India, on Conventional energy resources, Their Potentials and productions, Limitations and energy management, Aquatic resources, Mineral Resources in India, Major Mineral belts, Iron ore, copper and Lime Stone.
11. Geography - 31Industries, Their development through the early times till the modern times, Industrial development during the planning era. Factors influencing the location of industries, classification of industries.

12: Geography -32: Cotton Textile Industries and Iron and Steel Industries
13. Geography - 33Paper industries, drugs and pharmaceutical industries, Automobile industries
 14. Geography - 34:The Fertiliser industries, SEZs, The MNCs, New Industrial Policy, Settlements (Rural Settlements)
15. Geography - 35Urban settlements, Classifications, problems, Urban Sprawl, Conurbation, Metro-politan areas, the urban housings (drawbacks and the government strategies) The slums and the government strategies, The NCR Delhi.
15. Geography - 36Demography- Caste groups, Religious composition, sex ratios, Work force, Literacy rates, Languages in India.
Transportation – Roadways and Railways.
16. Geography - 37Airways, Water ways, Pipelines.
Regional Planning (Regions, methods for identifying and criteria for delineating the regions)
17. Geography - 38Planning, Why multi-level planning?, growth pole theory, The regional imbalances, Reasons for regional imbalances, strategies of the government.