Population - Indian Economy


1.      The World population reached 1st billionth mark in the year 1800.
2.      2nd billion in the year 1930.
3.      3rd billion in the year 1960.
4.      4th billion in the year 1975.
5.      5th billion in the year 1987. (July 11)
6.      6th billion in the year 1999. (October 12)
7.      7th billion in the year 2011. (October 31)

1.      The fifth billionth baby took birth on July 11, 1987.

2.      This day (July 11) is being observed as the World Population Day.

3.      UNO (United Nations Organization) has declared October 12 as Day of 6 billion.


v  The World population is expected to reach the
·        7th billion mark in the year 2011
·        8th billion mark in the year 2020.

*      What do you think?
*      Is this alarming?
*      What happens to the limited resources that are available?
*      Is the pressure on the natural resources increase?

*      India occupies 2.14% of the world’s geographical area.

*      India shares 17.5% of the world’s population. (2011)

*      Note: The population of China constitutes 19.5 percent of the World population.


§  Poverty
§  Illiteracy
§  Ignorance
§  Inadequate development
§  Early marriages
§  Lack of facilities for family planning
§  Drop in death rate
§  Religious beliefs

*      Do you agree with all the above mentioned points?
*      Please ponder over each point.
*      Do you like to add more? Think.
*      Is this related to only to India or is this a global problem.


CENSUS 2011:
ü  2011 census is the 15th census in India.
ü  In India the first census took place in the year 1872.
ü  As per the census of 2011 the Indian population is 1.21 billion (1210.2 million).
ü  The population of India is almost equal to the combined population of USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan.
ü  The 1.21 comprise 624 million males and 587 female populations.
ü  Since 2001, 181 million people have been increased.
ü  But, the population growth rate has been declined by 17.64 percent.
ü  The sex ratio is increased from 933 to 940.
ü  Note: On July 11, 2015 India recorded a population of 127, 42, 39, 769.
ü  Brazil is the 5th most populated country in the World. Its population is equal to the population of UP.
ü  The World population has reached 7.3 billion as of mid 2015.
ü  The World population is growing by 1.18 percent per annum. Approximately 83 million people are added annually
ü  The population will reach 8.5 billion by 2030, 9.7 billion by 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100


ü  The number of females per 1000 males
ü  X = 1000 Males
ü  X (Females) = 1000 Males
ü  940 F : 1000 M (2011 census)


The highest sex ratio is present in Kerala (1084:1000)
In Union Territories Puduchhery is the top position with 1034 per 1000 males.

ü  The child sex ratio is 919: 1000.


ü  This is the ratio of children between the age group of 0 and 6 years.

ü  The literacy rate is increased to 74.04 percent.
ü  Male literacy rate is 82.14 percent.
ü  Female literacy rate is 65.46 percent.
ü  The density of population is increased from 325 to 382.


ü  The number of people living per square kilometer.

ü  The National Capital Delhi topped in the density with 11,297 people per square kilometer.
ü  Chandigarh is with 9252 people per Sq.Km.
ü  In Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar islands has the lowest population density of 46 people per square kilometer.
ü  In states Bihar has the highest density of population with 1102 people per square kilometer.
ü  The state Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest density of population with 17 people per square kilometer.
ü  Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country.
ü  The population of UP as per 2011 census 19, 95, 81, 477.
ü  Uttar Pradesh constitutes 16.49 percent of the country’s population.
ü  Uttar Pradesh constitutes 1/6th of the country’s population.
ü  Sikkim is the least populated state in the country.
ü  The population of Sikkim as per 2011 census is 6, 07, 688.
ü  Sikkim constitutes 0.05 percent of the country’s population.
ü  In Union territories Delhi is highly populated.
ü  The population of Delhi is 1,67,53, 235.
ü  The population of Delhi constitutes 1.38 percent of the country’s population.
ü  In Union territories Lakshadweep is low populated.
ü  The population of Lakshadweep is 64,429.
ü  The population of Lakshadweep constitutes 0.01 percent of India’s population.
ü  Kerala is the highly literate state with 93.91 percent.
ü  In Union territories Lakshadweep is at the top position with 92.28 percent.
ü  The lowest literacy rate is present in Bihar (63.82 percent)

ü  This was constituted on May 11, 2000.
ü  This is initially kept under the Planning Commission. (Now under Ministry of Health).
ü  The total membership of the commission was 131. (now reduced to 44)
ü  The Prime Minister is the Chairman of the National Population Commission.
ü  The basic function is to guide for population stabilization by promoting synergy between demographic, environmental and educational programmes.
ü  The National Commission on Population was reconstituted on May 19, 2005.
ü  The commission is now function under the Ministry of Health.
ü  At present the Prime Minister is the Chairman.

ü  The immediate objective is to address the unmet needs of contraception, health infrastructure, health personnel and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and Child health care.
ü  The medium term goal is to bring the total fertility rates to replacement level by 2010.
ü  The long term goal is to achieve stable population by 2045.
ü  The commission has formed 14 socio demographic goals, like
ü  Making school education compulsory and to reduce dropouts.
ü  Reduce IMR (infant mortality rate) to 30 per 1000 live births.


*      What is IMR (infant mortality rate)?

Ø  Number of infants dying per 1000 live births.
Ø  As in 2015 IMR in India 40

ü  Reduce MMR (maternal mortality rate) to below 100 per 100000 (one lakh) live births.

*      What is MMR?

·        The number of mothers dying per 100000 at the time of delivery of the baby.
·        As in 2015 MMR in India 167

ü  To promote delayed marriage of girls
ü  To achieve 80 percent institutional deliveries
ü  To prevent and control communicable diseases
ü  To promote vigorously the small family norm to achieve replacement levels of total fertility levels.
ü  To reward panchayats and Zilla Parishads for promoting small family norm.
ü  Incentives in case of adopting 2 child norm.
ü  The couples of BPL (below poverty line) having sterilization with not more than 2 children will be eligible for health insurance plan.
ü  According to this policy the National Commission on Population was set up under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister.
ü  To attain the goals of the National Population Commission a NPSF (National Population Stabilization Fund) was set up.
ü  In the year 2003 the NPSF was renamed as JSK (Janasankhya Sthiratha Kosh).
ü  The JSK supports projects, schemes, initiatives and innovative ideas designed to help population stabilization both in government and voluntary sectors.  


ü  Justice V R Krishna Iyer Commission (on the Rights and Welfare of Women and Child) recommended to the government of Kerala to impose a fine of Rs. 10,000/- or imprisonment up to 3 months on those who exceed the 2 child norm. This came in criticism from many quarters based on secular arguments in defence of basic individual rights. On this recommendation the catholic church in Kerala encouraged its members to increase the number of their children and also decided to award prizes to parents with the maximum number of children and also raised a false alarm about its survival if the number of its members does not multiply fast. (Source: The Hindu, Date: January 8, 2012).